Australia travel tips: Australia's birthday.

Prime Minister William Pitt (the younger) announced in August 1786 that Botany Bay would be founded as a convict settlement. King George III, during the opening of Parliament on 23 January 1787, stated that transportation of convicts to Australia was necessary in order to remove the inconvenience which arose from the crowded state of gaols.

The transport convoy consisted of:
The ships:
Warships: H M S Sinus, H M S Supply
Transport: Alexander, Charlotte
Store ship: Borrowdale, Fishburn, Golden Grove
Friendship: Scarborough, Prince of Wales
The people:
Commander: Captain Arthur Phillip
250 officers and marines
30 wives and 12 children
586 male convicts
192 female convicts
13 children of convicts
1084 people total
The animals:
87 chickens
19 goats
142 fowls
29 sheep
35 ducks
2 bulls
18 turkeys
3 mares
5 domestic rabbits
3 colts
25 pigs
1 stallion
49 hogs
The Journey
Distance: approximately 24,000 kilometres.
Embarkation: convicts were loaded on the ships as early as March, at Portsmouth.
Sailing time and date: 9 a.m., Sunday 13 May, 1787.
Route sailed: south-west via the Canary Islands. Fresh supplies of food, water and wine taken on at Teneriffe, 3 June 1787. At Rio de Janeiro, further provisions acquired. At Cape Town livestock for breeding boarded. Left Cape Town 13 November. On 5 January, 1788, Van Diemen's land sighted.
The Supply: with Captain Phillip on board, arrived in Botany Bay 18 January. Captain Phillip considered Botany Bay unsuitable for settlement so explored other inlets and decided on Sydney Cove. By 26 January 1788 all ships had arrived and the historic landing was made. That is Australia's birthday.